Amateur Radio

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Description[edit]

These are signals used by and sometimes created by amateur radio enthusiasts and operators, including many experimental digital modes. You can find plenty of these signals in amateur frequency bands.


Click the name of a signal to see more detailed information, possible decoding, and additional sound and waterfall samples

Color Legend
Inactive
(No longer in use)
Active
(Currently in active use)
Status
Unknown or Intermittent
Signal Name Description Frequency Mode Modulation Bandwidth Location Sample Audio Waterfall image
ALE-400 ALEAutomatic Link Establishment-400 is an amateur version of the 2G ALEAutomatic Link Establishment standard. It is adapted to the demands of amateur radio emergency traffic handling. 1.806 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 144.163 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying 400 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide ALE-400.jpg
AMSAT-P3D AMSAT-P3D (Known as Phase 3D, OSCAR-40, and AO-40) is a amateur radio satellite built by AMSAT. As of 2004, the satellite's systems have failed. 145.805 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 24,048.285 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) PSKPhase-Shift Keying 1.6 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide SAT 40.jpg
ASCII ASCII (also known as ITA5 or IRA) is an amateur radio telegraphy signal using the ITA-5 alphabet. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 450 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz NFMNarrowband Frequency Modulation, USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) FSKFrequency-Shift Keying 300 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide ASCII.jpg
Automatic Link Establishment (2G ALE) Automatic Link Establishment, 2G ALEAutomatic Link Establishment (Official designation MIL-STD-188-141A and/or MIL-STD-188-141B (Appendix A)) is the current standardized method of establishing connections between radio operators. Also known as FED-STD 1045, FED-STD 1049, and STANAGNATO Standardization Agreement (STANAG), defines processes, procedures, terms, and conditions for common military or technical procedures or equipment between the member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). 5066. 3.068 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 28.313 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide ALE2G.jpg
Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS) Packet system for real time data communications. Used by hams for location reporting, weather stations etc. 144.39 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 145.57 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz NFMNarrowband Frequency Modulation AFSKAudio Frequency-Shift Keying 10 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide APRS.jpg
CCIR 493-4 Selcall CCIRComité Consultatif International pour la Radio (Predecessor of the ITU-R) 493-4 Selcall, also known as HFHigh Frequency (3-30 MHz) Selcall, Australian Selcall, and Codan 8580 Selcall, is a Selcall standard developed in Australia for the HFHigh Frequency (3-30 MHz) band. Used by Amateur radio and Codan Modems. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) FSKFrequency-Shift Keying 300 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide Ccir 493.jpg
CHIP CHIP, or CHIP64, is a spread-spectrum PSKPhase-Shift Keying mode developed by Antonino Porcino IZ8BLY. 7.09 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 14.11 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) PSKPhase-Shift Keying 580 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide CHIP.jpg
CLOVER 2000 CLOVER 2000 is an upgrade to CLOVER-II, a digital data protocol developed by Ray Petit and HAL Communications. Sometimes referred to as XCLOVER or 8 Tone CLOVER. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) PSKPhase-Shift Keying, QAMQuadrature Amplitude Modulation kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide CLOVER-2000new.jpg
CLOVER 2500 CLOVER 2500 is a new upgrade to CLOVER-2000, adding 25% more speed to the CLOVER system. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) PSKPhase-Shift Keying, QAMQuadrature Amplitude Modulation 2.5 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide CLOVER-2500.jpg
CLOVER-I CLOVER-I was the first iteration of the Clover series of digital modes. Was never released for commercial use, replaced by CLOVER-II. Also known as Cloverleaf. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) PSKPhase-Shift Keying, QAMQuadrature Amplitude Modulation 100 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide CLOVER-I sim.jpg
CLOVER-II CLOVER-II is the advancement of CLOVER-I, with 4 tone pulses and a max data rate of 750 bpsBits per second (bps). Also known as Q-CLOVER and QUAD-CLOVER. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) PSKPhase-Shift Keying, QAMQuadrature Amplitude Modulation 500 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide CLOVER-II.jpg
Coherent BPSK Coherent BPSKBinary Phase-Shift Keying (1 bit per symbol), also known as C-BPSKBinary Phase-Shift Keying (1 bit per symbol), was an experimental amateur mode developed by Bill DeCarle VE2IQ. 138 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz — 18.081 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) PSKPhase-Shift Keying 200 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide Coherent PSK.jpg
Coherent CW Coherent CWContinuous Wave (also known as CCW) was a strictly timed morse code mode designed by Ray Petit W7GHM (The same inventor of CLOVER). CCW depended on accurate timing from both receiver and transmitter. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) OOKOn-Off Keying Modulation HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide Coherent CW.jpg
Contestia Contestia, developed by Nick Fedoseev (UT2UZ) in 2005, is a digital mode derived from Olivia. It aims to deliver a compromise of speed and performance. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying 150 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). — 2 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide Contestiathmb.png
D-STAR D-STAR is a digital voice protocol used by ham radio. Is sometimes routed over the internet for international communications. 145.67 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz NFMNarrowband Frequency Modulation PSKPhase-Shift Keying, GMSKGaussian Minimum-Shift Keying, 4FSK4-Level Frequency Shift Keying 6.25 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide DSTAR.jpg
DominoEX DominoEX, also known as just Domino, is an IFKIncremental Frequency Keying (Incremental Frequency Keying) mode developed by Murray Greenman ZL1BPU and Con Wassilieff ZL2AFP in 2004 that was the first fully developed iteration of the Domino IFKIncremental Frequency Keying family modes. Used to send text over RFRadio Frequency. 5.332 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 28.117 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) IFKIncremental Frequency Keying 173 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). — 524 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide DominoEX.png
DominoF DominoF was the first experimental implementation of the Domino family of IFKIncremental Frequency Keying modes, developed by Con ZL2AFP. DominoF used dual interleaved tone sets. Superseded by DominoEX. 1.838 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 28.08 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) IFKIncremental Frequency Keying 220 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide DominoF.png
FSK441 FSK441 is a high speed meteor scatter communication mode. FSK441 uses a baudBaud (unit symbol Bd) is the unit for symbol rate or modulation rate in symbols per second. rate of 441 BdBaud (unit symbol Bd) is the unit for symbol rate or modulation rate in symbols per second.. 144 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 444 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) FSKFrequency-Shift Keying 1.75 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide FSK441.jpg
FSQ Fast Simple QSO (FSQ) is an amateur radio digital modulation mode developed by Con Wassilieff ZL2AFP with Murray Greenman ZL1BPU in 2015. 3.58 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 10.149 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) IFK+Offset Incremental Frequency Keying 300 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide FSQ.png
FT8 FT8 is an amateur radio QSO communication protocol USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying 47 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide FT8-7074U.jpg
FUNcube-1 Telemetry FUNcube-1 Telemetry is a telemetry signal sent from the Funcube-1 Cubesat amateur radio satellite. 145.935 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) PSKPhase-Shift Keying kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide FUNcube.jpg
FreeDV COHPSK FreeDV Coherent PSKPhase-Shift Keying (Also known as FreeDV 700) is a robust Digital Voice mode developed by David Rowe for his FreeDV Digital Voice Software. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) PSKPhase-Shift Keying 1.5 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide 700 tfc DV.png
Frequency Division Multiplex Digital Voice (FDMDV) Frequency Division Multiplex Digital Voice (FDMDV), also known as FDMDV 14+1-tone, is a digital voice mode originally developed by Peter Martinez G3PLX and Francesca Lanza HB9TLK. It has since been improved upon by David Rowe. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) PSKPhase-Shift Keying 1.125 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz — 1.3 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide 1600 tfc DV.png
G-TOR Golay-Teleprinting Over Radio (G-TOR) is an FSKFrequency-Shift Keying proprietary standard developed by Kantronics Inc. and is used by radio amateurs, military (Irish Air Corps/Navy, Mexican army) and governmental agencies (ICRC). MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) FSKFrequency-Shift Keying 350 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide G-TOR300.jpg
Hellschreiber Hellschreiber (Also known as Feld Hell or just Hell) is a teleprinter system developed in the late 1920's by Rudolf Hell, a German inventor. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) OOKOn-Off Keying Modulation, FSKFrequency-Shift Keying, MSKMinimum-Shift Keying (When Shift/Bd = 0.5. It is impossible to get this ratio to be lower than 0.5, hence it is called the 'Minimum' shift.) 350 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). — 800 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide Feld Hellthmb.jpg
ISCAT Ionospheric Scattering (ISCAT) mode used for weak signal long distance radio contact by meteor and Ionosphere scattering. 50 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 148 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying 904 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). — 1.809 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide ISCAT-A Sim.jpg
JT65 JT65 is an amateur radio QSO communication protocol developed by Joe Taylor, K1JT. JT65 has 3 submodes: JT65A, JT65B, and JT65C. The most popular submode of JT65 is JT65A. JT65 gets '65' from the 65 tones it uses. 1.838 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 50.276 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying 180 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). — 710 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide JT65AWaterfall.png
JT6M JT6M is part of the WSJT suite of digital weak signal software applications developed by Joe Taylor, K1JT 50.215 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 50.25 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide JT6M sim.jpg
JT9 JT9 is a very narrow 9-FSKFrequency-Shift Keying mode for making contact (QSO's) under extreme weak-signal conditions. 3.578 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 28.079 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying 20 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide JT9.png
JTMS JTMS is a meteor scatter mode that uses MSKMinimum-Shift Keying (When Shift/Bd = 0.5. It is impossible to get this ratio to be lower than 0.5, hence it is called the 'Minimum' shift.). JTMS behaves similarily to FSK441. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) MSKMinimum-Shift Keying (When Shift/Bd = 0.5. It is impossible to get this ratio to be lower than 0.5, hence it is called the 'Minimum' shift.) 1.7 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide JTMS sim.jpg
KG-STV KG-STV is an image transmission mode developed by JJ0OBZ in Japan. 3.733 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 14.233 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) FSKFrequency-Shift Keying 500 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). — 2.5 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide KG-STV 4LFSK norm.jpg
Kiwi Kiwi is a telemetry mode developed by CNES used on amateur rockets and radio balloons in France. 137.95 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 138.5 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz NFMNarrowband Frequency Modulation FSKFrequency-Shift Keying 12.5 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz France Kiwi thumb.jpg
Lentus Lentus is an extremely slow QRPIn amateur radio, QRP operation refers to transmitting at reduced power while attempting to maximize one's effective range. mode developed by Patrick Lindecker F6CTE used to transmit QRPIn amateur radio, QRP operation refers to transmitting at reduced power while attempting to maximize one's effective range.'s at very low power. Each 43-character (75 bit) transmission takes roughly 5 minutes to transmit across 32 possible tones in a tight 25 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). bandwidth. 136.3 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz — 14.096 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying 25 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide Lentus.png
MT63 MT63 is a Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexed (OFDMOrthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing) digital data mode aimed for use in high noise environments. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) OFDMOrthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing, PSKPhase-Shift Keying 500 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). — 2 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide MT63.jpg
Morse Code (CW) CWContinuous Wave Morse Code is the simplest form of transmission found virtually all over the RFRadio Frequency bands for a variety of uses. The most common use of this is for Call-sign Beacons by both Amateur and Military operators. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 930 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz CWContinuous Wave OOKOn-Off Keying Modulation HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide CW.jpg
Multi Frequency Shift Keying (MFSK) MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying is a family of multi-frequency shift keying digital transmission modes. MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying-8 and MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying-16 are two well-known amateur radio modes. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying 154 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). — 630 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide MFSK 8 thmb.jpg
OPERA Beacon / Data OPERA Ad-Hoc Data/Beacon 136 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) ASKAmplitude-Shift Keying HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). World Wide Op02.png
Olivia OLIVIA is an amateur digital teletype mode designed by Pawel Jalocha SP9VRC in 2005. It's goal was to be effective even in poor propagation conditions. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying 125 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). — 2 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide Olivia 8-250y.png
PACKET PACKET, also known as FSK300, AX25, and X25, is a packet based protocol derived from AX.25 and HDLC computer network protocols. Packet radio is a synchronous system in which data is transmitted in ASCII character packets. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 800 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) FSKFrequency-Shift Keying 730 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide PACKET 300.jpg
PAX PAX and PAX2 are developed by Patrick Lindecker F6CTE in 2005, and was derived from Olivia. It utilizes the AX.25 protocol that PACKET uses, and had a minimum SNR of -10dB. Can transmit APRSAutomatic Packet Reporting System, an amateur radio-based system for real time tactical digital communications of information of immediate value in the local area frames. 3.59 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 144.62 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying 500 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide PAX.jpg
PSK-AM PSKPhase-Shift Keying-AMAmplitude Modulation is an amateur digital mode developed by Patrick Lindecker F6CTE in 2002/2003, and incorporates FECForward Error Correction interleaving. PSKPhase-Shift Keying-AMAmplitude Modulation uses the modulation of PSK10/31 with the FECForward Error Correction of SITOR-B. 10.148 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 144.62 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) PSKPhase-Shift Keying 40 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). — 180 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide PSKAM-31.png
PSK2K PSK2K is a meteor scatter type of mode written by DJ5HG Using a modulation scheme of BPSKBinary Phase-Shift Keying (1 bit per symbol) at 2000 BdBaud (unit symbol Bd) is the unit for symbol rate or modulation rate in symbols per second.. 50.36 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 144.36 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) PSKPhase-Shift Keying kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide PSK2K.jpg
Phase Shift Keying (PSK) PSKPhase-Shift Keying is a digital teletype mode based on Phase-Shift Keying (PSKPhase-Shift Keying) modulation. The most popular amateur radio PSKPhase-Shift Keying mode is PSKPhase-Shift Keying 31. 1.838 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 909 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) PSKPhase-Shift Keying 10 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). — 1 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide BPSKthumb.png
Q15X25 Q15X25, also known as NEWQPSK, is an experimental amateur radio packet modem developed by Pawel Jalocha SP9VRC. Q15X25 is a OFDMOrthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing QPSKQuadrature Phase-Shift Keying (2 bits per symbol) implementation of the AX.25 Packet protocol used in PACKET. 3.585 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 14.109 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) PSKPhase-Shift Keying, OFDMOrthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing 1.95 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz — 2.35 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide Q15X25 2400.jpg
Quadcopter Telemetry Signal This signal originates from the Silicon Instruments Si1000 Software Defined Radio (SDR) that is a component of the 3DR Telemetry Radio, sold for use as a data link between a computer ground station and a UAV "a drone". 414 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 935 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz FHSS-TDM BPSKBinary Phase-Shift Keying (1 bit per symbol), 8-PSK8-Phase Phase-Shift Keying (3 bits per symbol), QAMQuadrature Amplitude Modulation Worldwide No Audio File Quadcopter.png
ROS ROS is an amateur radio teletype free running QSO mode designed for low signal/high noise conditions. 1.8 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) CDMACode Division Multiple Access, Phase Continious MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide ROS 8Bd.jpg
RTTYM RTTYM, developed by Nick Fedoseev (UT2UZ) in 2005, is a digital mode derived from Olivia. It aims to deliver a compromise of speed and performance. RTTYM is about 4x faster than Olivia, but trades the speed for reduced robustness and sensitivity. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying 150 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). — 2 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide RTTYM.png
Radio Teletype (RTTY) RTTYRadio TeleTYpe (Also known as Baudot or ITA2) uses the Baudot 5-bit alphabet with FSKFrequency-Shift Keying to send text messages over the shortwave. This mode is gradually dying out in favor of more robust modes like PSK31 in the amateur service. 147.3 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz — 28.15 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) FSKFrequency-Shift Keying 85 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). — 850 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide RTTY thumbnail.jpg
Redundant Digital File Transfer (RDFT) RDFT is an amateur radio digital mode used to transmit files. 9.065 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 9.24 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) PSKPhase-Shift Keying 1.8 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide Digtrx intro.jpg
Robust PACKET Robust PACKET, also known as HFHigh Frequency (3-30 MHz)-APRSAutomatic Packet Reporting System, an amateur radio-based system for real time tactical digital communications of information of immediate value in the local area, RPR, Winlink RMS, and APRSlink, is an OFDMOrthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing version of the amateur mode PACKET which is optimized for shortwave use. This mode was developed by Spezielle Communications Systeme GmbH & Co. KG (SCS). 3.61 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 14.103 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) PSKPhase-Shift Keying, OFDMOrthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing 500 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide Robust PACKET.jpg
Single Sideband Voice Single side band, either lower side band or upper side band, is an AMAmplitude Modulation modulated voice channel with one sideband suppressed. Used in the HFHigh Frequency (3-30 MHz) band by amateur radio hams and aircraft weather reports. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz SSB AMAmplitude Modulation 1.9 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide SSB Voice.jpg
Slow-Scan Television (SSTV) Slow-scan television (SSTV) is a method for picture transmission used by amateur radio operators to transmit and receive images. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 300 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) FMFrequency Modulation 2.5 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide Robot 36waterfall.jpg
THOR THOR is an adaptation of DominoEX with MFSK16 binary varicode and FECForward Error Correction. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) IFKIncremental Frequency Keying 173 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). — 524 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide THORthmb.png
THROB THROB is a unique data mode that relies heavily on DSP techniques, using MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying and AMAmplitude Modulation modulation techniques together. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying 72 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). — 188 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide THROB1prev.png
VOICE VOICE is a MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying mode developed by Patrick Lindecker F6CTE in 2006, and was derived from Olivia. It was designed for blind or partially sighted amateur radio operators. MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz — 30 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) MFSKMultiple Frequency Shift-Keying 200 HzHertz (Hz), unit of frequency, defined as one cycle per second (1 Hz). Worldwide VOICE.png
WinDRM WinDRM is an amateur radio derivation of the Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) digital voice and data transmission protocol. Also known as HamDRM, and Digital SSTV. 14.236 MHzMegaHertz (MHz) 10^6 Hz USBUpper Side Band Modulation (Radio, referring to reception and modulation mode)Universal Serial Bus (Computer, referring to USB Ports and cables) QAMQuadrature Amplitude Modulation, OFDMOrthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing 2.2 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz — 2.4 kHzKiloHertz (kHz) 10^3 Hz Worldwide Digital sstvimg.jpg